Monday, May 25, 2020

Enron Research Paper - 2224 Words

Enron Research Paper In 2001, the world was shocked by the demise of Enron, a multibillion dollar corporation that had thousands of employees and people that had affiliations with the company including The White House itself. Because of the financial chaos and destroyed lives and reputations this catastrophe left in its path, questions arose concerning how exactly it happened, why it occurred, and who was behind it. It is essential to understand how this multibillion dollar corporation rose to power and later imploded. Enron itself was born as the result of Houston’s Natural Gas and InterNorth, a gas based pipeline company from Nebraska in 1985. In the final analysis, the conspiracy of Kenneth Lay, Jeffery Skilling, and others, including†¦show more content†¦Beyond the dollars and cents, the Enron catastrophe offers a new textbook example of failed ethics in business. Individuals are responsible for their actions; unethical or illegal individual actions are systems of systemic problems, a nd Enron’s system of accountability, oversight, ethical disclosure and corporate concerns were flawed. The corporate culture at Enron exemplified values of risk taking, aggressive growth, and entrepreneurial creativity. Although these can be positive values, they were not balanced by genuine attention to corporate integrity and value. Since the culture at Enron was not wellShow MoreRelatedEnron Research Paper3111 Words   |  13 PagesTHE COLLAPSE OF ENRON amp; THE INTRODUCTION OF THE SARBANES OXLEY ACT BY TREVOR GARRETT 02/25/2011 Abstract Enron Corporation was one of the largest energy trading, natural gas and Utilities Company in the world that was based in Huston, Texas. The downfall of Enron is one of the most infamous and shocking events in the financial world, and its reverberations were felt around the globe. Prior to its collapse in 2001, Enron was one of the leading companies in the U.S and considered amongRead MoreEthics in Accounting1196 Words   |  5 PagesEthics in Accounting By Pace University – New York Accounting for Decision Making, MBA 640 Fall 2011 Required Research Paper Page 1 of 11 Table of Contents Number Content Page Number 1 Introduction 3 2 Ethics in Accounting 4 3 Enron Scandal 6 4 Satyam Scandal 8 5 Conclusion 10 6 References 11 Page 2 of 11 Introduction †¢ What is â€Å"Ethics†? Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that addresses questionsRead MoreFailure Of Responsible Management : Enron Corporation1645 Words   |  7 Pageswhich failure of responsible management. The Enron Corporation is an example, because Enron event is the typical case for organization failure of responsible management In the end of 2001, Enron scandal has been disclosure, Enron stock prices slumped, and its financial tricks was exposed. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) began survey of company s records. Enron’s auditor ‘Arthur Andersen ‘destroys relevant documents. (Ailon, G. 2011) Enron was bankruptcy in December 2001, and became theRead MoreUniversity of Phoenix Organizational Culture1133 Words   |  5 Pagesis the case with the Enron Corporation, a once massive energy company that suffered arguably the most horrific financial collapse in American history. The Enron failure began with the development of a flawed corporate (organizational) culture, and was fulfilled by the constant reinforcement of that culture. From the top down, Enron s corporate culture damned the company s successes and ensured it for eventual collapse. It must by noted that while the collapse of the Enron Corporation was dynamicRead MoreThe Ethics Of The Enron Case1407 Words   |  6 PagesThe Enron case is a very popular case to show how the profession of accounting is vital to make the corporate world of business flow reliably. Enron was recognized as one of the world’s major electricity, natural gas, communications and pulp and paper’s company. However Enron was found to record assets and profits at inflated, fraudulent and non-existent amounts. Debts and losses were found to be excluded from financial statements along with other major transactions between Enron and other companiesRead MoreEssay on Analysis of the Enron/Arthur Anderson Scandal1558 Words   |  7 PagesEnron and Arthur Anderson were both giants in their own industry. Enron, a Texas based company in the energy trading business, was expanding rapidly in both domestic and global markets. Arthur Anderson, LLC. (Anderson), based out of Chicago, was wel l established as one of the big five accounting firms. But the means by which they achieved this status became questionable and eventually contributed to their demise. Enron used what if often referred to as â€Å"creative† accounting methods, this resultedRead MoreThe Importance Of Accounting As Well As Ethics1442 Words   |  6 Pagesknow it would be an honest mistake. They all have the upmost confidence in their accountants to have the professionalism and competence to be able to catch the mistakes that are made. Secondly and perhaps most important and relevant to the case of Enron and Andersen, they all stated the obvious. The easiest way for a scandal like this never to occur is to ensure the people at the top of the organization such as the CEO, CFO, Founders, and COO all have the proper ethical training and moral values.Read MoreReasons for Enrons Business Failure1434 Words   |  6 PagesEnron - Reasons for Business Failure Abstract Various major companies in the past have witnessed unimaginable growth of their businesses, but some of them eventually had to succumb to downfall as their business models failed. Most of these businesses had been deemed as failures due to the management methods, leadership practices and flawed organizational structures. This research paper aims to focus on Enron, a large entity as a failed model of business. This would be achieved by discussing aboutRead MoreEnron And Its Impact On Enron s Downfall Essay1492 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract recent collapses of high profile business failures like Enron,Worldcom,Parmlat,and Tycohasbeen a subject of great debate among regulators, investors, government and academics in the recent past. Enron’s case was the greatest failure in the history of American capitalism and had a major impact on financial markets by causing significant losses to investors. Enron was a company ranked by Fortune as the most innovative company in the United States; it exemplified the transition from the productionRead MoreEnron And The Enron Scandal1588 Words   |  7 PagesEnron was a corporation located in Houston, Texas and in just fifteen years the US energy trading and utilities company grew to become one of America’s largest and more successful cooperation’s. Enron suffered a major fall. After being one of the most successful corporations Enron became the biggest company to file bankruptcy in history. In this research paper it will discuss about the history of Enron, the frau d committed and who is to blame. The historical development of white collar crime in the

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Native Americans And American History - 1396 Words

Native Americans have remained a prominent aspect of American history; not just a history of the people, but a history of the land and the extensive traditions that shadowed it, like footprints in the sand. However, when the Europeans staggered over with indifference towards the natives and their unusual customs, a conflict erupted that dates back hundreds of years and continues into the present. As the United States grew further more intolerant of the natives, the daring judgment to either assimilate into the American society, or face extinction of the Indian race and culture was presented. Some natives elected to conform to American culture, while abandoning their Indian heritage. Like immigrants, who presently migrate into America,†¦show more content†¦The Society’s pleas to the federal government proved successful when Congress created the Indian Claims Commission, which would settle Native grievances with the American government, in 1946 (2). As the years persis ted, so did the transformation of the Cherokee people, noted as the â€Å"Cherokee Culture Change† in the 1800s. In 1804, the Moravians opened a school, which taught Cherokee children how to be â€Å"civilized†. The children were taught how to speak, dress, and practice Christianity. The young boys were instructed on farming techniques, and the adolescent girls were trained to be docile and submissive (3). One of the most ingenious adaptions to the American society was the system of writing for the official Cherokee language. Sequoyah crafted eighty-six symbols for each sound, consequently enabling numerous Cherokees to learn how to read and write. Adding on to their countless accomplishments from assimilation into American culture, the Cherokee commenced the launch of the Cherokee Phoenix, a newspaper which expressed the opinions, viewpoints, and rich history of the Cherokee Nation(3). The most significant reasoning for the Natives’ assimilation into American society was a desire for an advanced life; disassociated from the worsening conditions on the reservations, and the fatal massacres brought

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Diabetes Mellitus Affects Over 20 Million People - 1305 Words

â€Å"Diabetes Mellitus affects over 20 million people in the United States, although approximately 25% of those are underdiagnosed with the condition. More than 50 million people have what is called â€Å"prediabetes,† a condition in which they have a blood glucose higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus, and 35,000 people die from it each year. Diabetes Mellitus is classified into several categories† (Sommers). Diabetes can be summarized as simply as a lifetime condition of high blood sugar levels. However, it is more complex than that. People with diabetes face many symptoms such as constant thirst and hunger. Also, often time’s diabetics will gain or lose a noticeable amount of weight. Along with that,†¦show more content†¦Diabetes is most often caused by heredity, more specially chromosome six, however obesity, acute tension, other disorders can put a person at a greater risk. If diabetes continues to go on not treated it can lead to death. According to Watkins, in ABC of Diabetes, someone with diabetes should, â€Å"Use complex carbohydrates as the main energy source rather than fat or protein, while, avoiding filling up with fatty foods such as cheese or meat containing high saturated fat levels, along with eating fish, especially oily fish. Also, use olive oil in cooking, and always keep sugar to a minimum.† (p.40) There are three main types of diabetes known as Type 1, Type 2, and Gestation diabetes. However, they all have one thing in common, if a person’s body does not break down sugars and carbohydrates into glucose, then the cells will not be able to take insulin and use it at energy. In some cases a person’s body may even produce the insulin, but reasons unknown cannot use the insulin. The least common type of diabetes is known as Type 1. â€Å"The classic symptoms of diabetes emerge when approximately 90% of the ÃŽ ² cells in the islets have been destroyed. Although characteristically such symptoms have a relatively sudden onset, the initiating pathophysiological process leading to the clinical emergence of type 1 diabetes may occur over a prolonged period of time†(Scobie). It affects mostly children and adolescents. It is more commonly known for the

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Highly emotional scene Essay Example For Students

Highly emotional scene Essay An Inspector Calls by JB Priestley is a drama in which there is a highly emotional scene. The play is set in 1912 but was written in 1944.  The play begins with the celebration of Sheila Birling and Gerald Crofts engagement. Suddenly, it is interrupted by the arrival of Inspector Goole. He begins asking each family member questions about a girl named Eva Smith who had recently committed suicide. One by one, it is revealed that they all had some involvement with the girl and ultimately, contributed to the girls death. The most emotional scene in the play is when Sheila Birling hears of the horrible death of Eva Smith. As the plot unfolds, she finds herself more involved with her death than previously thought. She then finds out that her fiancà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½e also knew the girl, as he had spent the previous summer with her using her as his mistress.  Sheila, normally a very excitable and complacent girl, immediately becomes upset when she hears of Evas death. (Distressed) I went to the manager at Milwards and I told him that if they didnt get rid of that girl, Id never go near the place again and Id persuade mother to close our account with them.  The stage directions instantly inform us that Sheila is anxious and distraught about what she has done. The long sentence also emphasises the panic and unease she feels as she explains herself. At this point it is clear to see that Sheila is justifying her actions and taking no responsibility.  When Sheila begins to realise that she has done something wrong she takes responsibility and simultaneously, shows hurt and remorse. Yes, but it didnt seem to be anything very terrible at the time. Do you understand? And if I could help her now, I would.  This quote conveys her pleading with her audience. The rhetorical question Do you understand? shows her sheer desperation for forgiveness. She understands she has treated the girl wrongly and wants the Inspector to see it from her point of view. Her regret is genuine. The dialogue shows us that only now, does she see how her behaviour was wrong. At this point, the audience can start to sympathise with Sheila and she did not realise her actions were going to lead to the eventual death of the girl and she is truly sorry. After Sheila calms down, the Inspector goes on to say that Eva Smith then changed her name to Daisy Renton. Sheilas fiancà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½e Gerald startles What? From this response we learn that he too, knew the girl who killed herself. Sheila is angered to find out this news.  Well Gerald? How did you come to know this girl Eva Smith? Daisy Renton then its the same thing? Sheilas interrogation of Gerald shows her despair and impatience to find out the truth. We already knew she had her suspicions and now she wants to get to the bottom of things. The irritable tone of this dialogue highlights the tension and emotion that Sheila is feeling in this scene. It shows how worried she is and is thinking the worst of her fiancà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½e. As an audience, you would feel her angst and want to find out about Geralds involvement with the girl. In conclusion, my analysis has shown that An Inspector Calls by JB Priestley is a play in which there is a highly emotional scene. Throughout the scene, we see an extremely distressed and upset Sheila in contrast to the rather unfeeling older members of the Birling family. This was purposely carried out by Priestley in order to get across his message that hope lies with the younger generation as they have more compassion for one another. He believes that hope for the future lies with the youth of society as they are more open to change and can make the world a more caring one.

Wednesday, April 8, 2020

Clevelands Poor Economy and Deplorable Housing Conditions

Introduction Plans to attain a stable regional future for Cleveland are surrounded by so many challenges. Policies that are exclusionary and discriminatory, complex urban disinvestment as well as the divided and inconsistent suburban growth that gives rise to segregation are part of these challenges.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Cleveland’s Poor Economy and Deplorable Housing Conditions specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These challenges and associated complexities of Cleveland city have left the metropolitan region dry and almost lifeless. There are heightened disparities within the City of Cleveland that have led to unstable social, economic and health facets of Cleveland’s City. In addition, competition in the region is dangerously eminent. This paper aims to understand how the once highly accredited city in Ohio is now fighting to restructure its current poor economy and deplorable housing cond itions. Present Demographic The population of Cleveland is low at an estimated 438, 042 in 2007 and is expected to further decline (Cleveland Land Lab, 2008). According to Mallach Brachman (2010), Cleveland’s population is less than 50% of what it initially used to be. The worst part is that the population continues to decrease and the situation is not presumed to get any better. Close to 3,300 acres of land are empty space and around15, 000 buildings are vacant. As if this is not enough, current demolishes and fires are consuming the already derelict structures. Most people have deserted the urban core and moved to the edges of the city even after a long-term investment within the heart of Cleveland. Growth on the fringes of the city gives rise to radical and high living standards due to a high need for city services, high taxes and diminishing rural outlook. The mansions that once made up John hay neighborhood do not exist. The Euclid Avenue of Aristocrats is forlorn-looki ng with long blocks of empty buildings, factories and lots. It is apparently clear that population loss has led to a declined economy for Cleveland. Currently, very few residents are foreign and fewer of the residents have achieved tertiary education. Housing According to â€Å"The Plain Dealer† by Lubinger (1992), mortgage rates were at their lowest in 20 years during this time. Housing has been at the heart of issues in Cleveland, escalated by the formidable foreclosures that continue to become worse to the extent of house abolishment (Kotlowitz, 2009). Either one of the following reasons lead to foreclosure as indicated by Mikelbank Post (2011): â€Å"the sale was a sheriff’s sale; the house had sold at a sheriff’s sale in the last 2 years; and the house had a foreclosure filing against it in the last 2 years†. There is obviously substantial land that is unused and various buildings have no one residing in them. This is due to the harsh reality of pop ulation and job loss. The following exhibit illustrates the prices of housing in Cleveland’s submarkets.Advertising Looking for essay on african american? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The exhibit evidently shows that the housing price in Cleveland city is less by half than that of the suburbs. Other than a clear split of the city versus suburbs, there are distinct features denoting the comparison between the two markets (Mikelbank Post, 2011). Also, there have been peculiar price changes, which raised concern among the residents, as obviously indicated by the exhibit. The foreclosure filings are higher in the suburbs than in the city. These have partly led to the lowered rates in housing prices and changed ways of doing business. Low housing prices might have also resulted from the economic crisis that hit the land. Social The current status of Cleveland has stemmed from a social and historical past marked by discri mination and exclusion across race and class during planning of state affairs. The current status of the African Americans in Cleveland is poor and is getting worse with each passing day (Blackwell, Bullard, Ferris Powell, 2007). Unemployment and low wages/income, lack of education and sprawl are the attributive factors for these poor conditions. Cleveland has a strong health care industry but the marginalized African American group is not able to access adequate and quality health care. Economic Cleveland is struggling with its many challenges in the attainment of a stable economy. Currently, Cleveland is undergoing decentralization of jobs and individuals as they move to the fringes of the suburban areas from the urban core. The economy of Cleveland has now become a service economy; the humming machines that once occupied the riverside are now replaced by white suburbanites enjoying their night (Keating, Krumholz, Perry, 1995). There is a decline of the once renowned industrial zone of Cleveland, jobs and population while dominance of the suburbs prevails. Cleveland does not fit to get into global competition because of disinvestment and disparities in education, which are very obvious within the entire region. As a result of no robustness in Cleveland’s economy, it becomes impossible to hire and meet business and family needs. Cleveland is the hub of economic struggles in Ohio manifested by loss of jobs and poor population growth. Availability and accessibility to economic opportunities differ due to the prevailing segregation.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Cleveland’s Poor Economy and Deplorable Housing Conditions specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Past Demographic The growth of Cleveland is owed to its strategic location at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River and connecting Ohio River with Lake Erie. It was not until after 1830 that Cleveland’s population began to g row modestly as foreigners arrived in the region. The canal network and railroad supported the evident growth. Cleveland was among the American cities that had a high population of foreigners. However, the systems in place did not do much to bring about integration and desegregation among the different foreign groups. Social Initially, Cleveland was the epitome of cultural diversity. Segregation in Cleveland came about after the Civil War when Millionaires’ Rows such as Euclid Avenue, occupied by wealthy industrialists, became a place for elegant mansions facing Lake Erie (Kotlowitz, 2009). On the other hand, there were the poorest sections of Cleveland, near the work places. Also, ethnic enclaves were evident as new immigrants sought to develop and maintain social and economic networks. These enclaves saw a distinct division among the foreign ethnic groups that were perceived as a threat to the existence of the Native Americans. As a result, there resulted a fight for 100% A mericanism. The adverse effects of this conflict between America and the foreign ethnic groups were labor strikes, inflation, unemployment and race riots. In its eventuality, immigration from Europe was restricted and as an alternative, Cleveland employers sought cheap labor from South America. Cleveland was referred to an â€Å"All America City† because it embraced reforms, streamlined City Council and implemented a recovery strategy that was comprehensive (Keating, Krumholz, Perry, 1995). These would not be achieved if both private and public sectors did not work together. The city also was seen as a representative of American urban change. The locality, economic prosperity and size of Cleveland favored the establishment of a medical school within the region in 1840. A public health officer and a board of health were formed in 1856 when poor sanitation was regarded as an aggravating factor for health problems (Keating, Krumholz, Perry, 1995). The early German and Irish im migrants formed social and economic networks that would help preserve their cultural traditions and beliefs. The Germans developed their own newspaper in 1846 and formed various functional groups. The Irish on the other hand came up with self-help organizations and maintained a religiously Catholic culture. Protestants were the predominant religious group with a total of 34 congregations. There were 8 Catholic and 2 Jewish congregations. At this time, Blacks were few and accounted for less than or 2% of the population. The blacks were scattered and worked as semiskilled or skilled employees. EducationAdvertising Looking for essay on african american? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Education became an issue of interest in 1853 and a Board was formed then. Three years later, the first high school was built. Economic The nineteenth century was the time when Cleveland was in the race for national development. This was between the Civil War and the Great Depression, when most American cities changed from agriculture, business and trade cities to industrial cities. Cleveland was part of this transition and in 1886, Cleveland had become a â€Å"great manufacturing city† (Keating, Krumholz, Perry, 1995). Cleveland underwent various economic changes that are interlinked with the present economic status of Cleveland. Initially, it was the pasture grounds that changed to become a hub for commerce and later as grounds for oil and manufacturing companies. The transition from a mercantile to an industrial city was linked to an influx of ethnic immigration. This was due to economic expansion that attracted Germans and Irish to Cleveland. The Germans managed to secur e stable jobs as skilled workers while the Irish were casual laborers. The Civil War led to the development and growth of Cleveland’s iron industry because its isolation and an excellent transport and communication system transformed it into a production site for war materials. Cleveland witnessed periodic depressions that were mostly followed by wage cuts, strikes and importation of strikebreakers from foreign countries. The First World War changed everything, from the population of young men to European immigration. As a result, the Great Migration was used to counteract the effects of World War I. Labor was obtained from Blacks in the South and their population exponentially increased, increasing by 308% in 10years. 1930 was the year when Cleveland’s prosperity came halting to an end after the great market crash of 29th October 1929. The rate of joblessness shot up rapidly, tax revenues dwindled rapidly yet the demand for shelter food and clothing was adamantly high (Keating, Krumholz, Perry, 1995). During World War II, Cleveland’s population swelled as industrial workers streamed in. The result was inadequate housing leading to overcrowding and overuse, hence creating a base for deterioration in the future. As if this was not enough, the return of servicemen wanting to raise new families aggravated the situation. In the mid-nineteenth century, the living conditions in downtown Cleveland were deteriorating and people were moving to the suburbs (Michney, 2007). In 1978, the situation peaked in Cleveland when it experienced bankruptcy. Cleveland was not able to settle its $14 million debt. In the early 1970s, Ralph J. Perk, who was Carl Stokes’ successor, took heavy loans and sourced money from bonds to cater for operational costs within the city. He also either sold or leased valuable assets of the city. The situation became worse when Dennis J. Kucinich was voted in as mayor in 1978 and default of the debt became a possibility a s local banks did not roll over short term notes. However, George V. Voinovich brought new hope for Cleveland when he became elected as mayor in 1979. Nonetheless, the general situation in Cleveland did not improve nor did Cleveland restore its former glory as one of the best and prosperous cities in America. At the end of the twentieth century, Cleveland had shrunk in population despite ongoing development at the time and the gap between poverty and affluence was wider (Warf Holly, 1997). Future Demographic The loss of population in Cleveland is not something that can be remedied overnight. As a matter of fact, the projected population size is 387, 039 in 2016, a further decline compared to the 2007 estimate (Cleveland Land Lab, 2008). However, it is believed that proper governance and administration would somehow restore the success of former Cleveland. There is a lot of reclaimed land that is idle and is a valuable resource in future developments (The Citizens’ bioregiona l plan for Northeast Ohio, 1999). It is expected that permanent and long-term solutions will be formulated. However, for a start, some short-term holding strategies will be set up to aid in stabilizing the region. Despite the fact that land is available and believed to be a ground for future developments, other factors do not show an auspicious future for Cleveland. Fewer people are an indicator for a weak labor force. Therefore, even if industries are set up, there is no labor available and the one that is available does not qualify to compete in the contemporary world with new technology because the people have achieved little education. Most families are single headed and the high poverty levels within Cleveland do not make the situation any better. The future is somewhat bleak and Cleveland may only have to rely on foreign residents to help in restructuring its economy. Developing land is not the only thing that will help Cleveland. It is important to help the existing populatio n raise its standards of living with a focus on education, health and housing. Only then, such a population will help to build Cleveland despite the alternative of relying on foreigners. Economic It is believed that the core of the urban area will redevelop to host renovated and elegant buildings and this will decline rapidly as an individual moves outside the city. There is likelihood that more job opportunities will be witnessed in the future. However, it is presumed that there will be difficulties trying to match diverse and well educated and well trained individuals to the emerging job opportunities. In addition, it is presumed that most of the job opportunities will be available in the suburbs. However, according to literature like the one from Kerr and Dole (2005), it is obvious that this objective is far from being achieved. Kerr Dole (2005) indicate that laborers are not paid in full commensurate with their labor costs. As a result, the living standards of the Clevelanders that the leaders are inexorably trying to improve will continue to be deplorable at this rate. It is not possible to ask for reforms if people will continue to suffer under the very same people calling for reforms. This article shows that the homeless and a majority of people living in the Cleveland’s shelters were laborers through day-labor agencies (Kerr Dole, 2005). Even though they would be paid the minimum wage or slightly above the minimum wage, this is not adequate to cater for a standard kind of life characterized by the availability and accessibility to social amenities like health care, good education, water and electricity in addition to the basic human needs. As long as some people will continue to get very low income, segregation will be salient and with it in the picture, it is difficult to bring back the former Cleveland. The Service industry that has dominated the region cannot manage to pillar the economy of Cleveland and much less, meet employment demands ( Kerr, 2011). The Plain Dealer by Smith (2013) indicates some of the lessons that Cleveland should learn from Youngstown. Cleveland should learn to utilize what is already in its possession. Social Crime is evident in Cleveland and is an impediment to achieving the future goals of restructuring and renewal. Crime mainly results from poor living conditions and racial discrimination. But, when it occurs, it causes more unrest as involved groups go against one another in a bid to prove their credibility (Durham, 2011). Racial segregation is a great challenge for the auspicious future of Cleveland because as long as racism exists, there will always be demonstrations, riots and strikes that will always bring down the progress of Cleveland as was the case in the 1960s in Hough (Keating, Krumholz, Perry, 1995). Racial struggles consume much of the time that could otherwise be spent on building and developing the state (Jones, 2012; Saatcioglu Carl, 2011). Conclusion Cleveland’s pas t has greatly affected the present Cleveland and will continue to affect its future. The city stemmed from a mere reserve to an industrial city that was viewed as an epitome of success in Ohio and in the entire American region. Unfortunately, when disaster struck, the long-term investment was not spared and everything was lost in a matter of days. Currently, Cleveland is struggling to survive and the future is quite bleak due to the associated challenges. However, all these can be overcome if leaders take a sound, noble, just and reasonable position. References Blackwell, A., Bullard, R., Ferris, D., Powell, J. A. (2007). Regionalism: Growing together to expand opportunity to all. Cleveland, OH: The Presidents’ Council of Cleveland. Cleveland Land Lab. (2008). Re-imagining a more sustainable Cleveland: Citywide strategies for reuse of vacant land. Cleveland: Kent State University. Durham, M. G. (2011). Vicious Assault Shakes Texas Town. Journalism Studies, 14(1), 1-12. Jones , P. (2012). Coming of Age in Cleveland. OAH Magazine of History, 26(1), 7-8. Keating, W. D., Krumholz, N., Perry, D. C. (1995). Cleveland: A Metropolitan reader. Ohio: The Kent State University Press. Kerr, D. (2011). Derelict Paradise: Homelessness and Urban Development in Cleveland, Ohio. Amherst and Boston: University of Massachusetts Press. Kerr, D., Dole, C. (2005). Cracking the Temp Trap: Day Laborers’ Grievances and Strategies for Change in Cleveland, Ohio. Labor Studies journal, 29(4), 87- 108. Kotlowitz, A. (2009, March 8). All boarded up. The New York Times. Web. Lubinger, B. (1992, July 19). Medina county leads in home sales buyers attracted to the area’s low crime rate, schools and large lots. Plain Dealer, The (Cleveland, OH). Web. Mallach, A., Brachman, L. (2010). Ohio’s cities at a turning point: finding the way forward. Washington, DC: Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings. Michney, T. M. (2007). Constrained communities: Black Clevelandâ⠂¬â„¢s experience with World War II public housing. Journal of Social History, 40(4), 933-956. Mikelbank, B. A., Post, C. (2011). Separating the good from the bad from the ugly: Indicators for housing market analysis. A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 13(2), 175-183. Saatcioglu, A., Carl, J. (2011). The discursive turn in school desegregation: National patterns and a case analysis of Cleveland 1973-1998. Social Science History, 35(1), 59-108. Smith, R. L. (2013, March 3). Can Youngstown shift gears from Rust Belt to Tech Belt? Steel, manufacturing, software are building blocks. Plain Dealer, The (Cleveland, OH). Web. The Citizens’ bioregional plan for Northeast Ohio. (1999). EcoCity Cleveland, 6(4-6). Warf, B., Holly, B. (1997). The rise and fall and rise of Cleveland. Annals of the American Academy of Political Social Science, 551, 208-222. This essay on Cleveland’s Poor Economy and Deplorable Housing Conditions was written and submitted by user Jonathon Juarez to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Neurotransmitters Definition and List

Neurotransmitters Definition and List Neurotransmitters are chemicals that cross synapses to transmit impulses from a neuron to another neuron, glandular cell, or muscle cell. In other words, neurotransmitters are used to send signals from one part of the body to another. Over 100 neurotransmitters are known. Many are simply constructed from amino acids. Others are more complex molecules. Neurotransmitters perform many vital functions in the body. For example, they regulate heartbeat, tell the lungs when to breathe, determine the set point for weight, stimulate thirst, affect mood, and control digestion. The synaptic cleft was discovered by Spanish pathologist  Santiago Ramà ³n y Cajal in the early 20th century. In 1921, German pharmacologist Otto Loewi verified that communication between neurons was the result of released chemicals. Loewi discovered the first known neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. How Neurotransmitters Work The axon terminal of a synapse stores neurotransmitters in vesicles. When stimulated by an action potential, synaptic vesicles of a synapse release neurotransmitters, which cross the small distance (synaptic cleft) between an axon terminal and a dendrite via diffusion. When the neurotransmitter binds a receptor at the dendrite, the signal is communicated. The neurotransmitter remains in the synaptic cleft for a short time. Then it is either returned to the presynaptic neuron through the process of reuptake, metabolized by enzymes, or bound to the receptor. When a neurotransmitter binds to a postsynaptic neuron, it can either excite it or inhibit it. Neurons are often connected to other neurons, so at any given time a neuron  may be subject to multiple neurotransmitters. If the stimulus for excitation is greater than the inhibitory effect, the neuron will fire and create an action potential that releases neurotransmitters to another neuron. Thus, a signal is conducted from one cell to the next. Types of Neurotransmitters One method of classifying neurotransmitters is based on their chemical composition. Categories include: Amino acids: ÃŽ ³-aminobutyric acid (GABA), aspartate, glutamate, glycine, D-serineGases: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitric oxide (NO)Monoamines: dopamine, epinephrine, histamine, norepinephrine, serotoninPeptides:  ÃŽ ²-endorphin, amphetamines, somatostatin, enkephalinPurines: adenosine, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)Trace amines: octopamine, phenethylamine, trypramineOther molecules: acetylcholine, anandamideSingle ions: zinc The other major method of categorizing neurotransmitters is according to whether they are excitatory or inhibitory. However, whether a neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory depends on its receptor. For example, acetylcholine is inhibitory to the heart (slows heart rate), yet excitatory to skeletal muscle (causes it to contract). Important Neurotransmitters Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in humans, used by about half of the neurons in the human brain. It is the primary excitatory transmitter in the central nervous system. One of its functions is to help form memories. Interestingly, glutamate is toxic to neurons. Brain damage or a stroke can lead to an excess of glutamate, killing neurons.GABA is the primary inhibitory transmitter in the vertebrate brain. It helps to control anxiety. GABA deficiency may result in seizures.Glycine is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate spinal cord.Acetylcholine stimulates muscles, functions in the autonomic nervous system and sensory neurons, and is associated with REM sleep. Many poisons act by blocking acetylcholine receptors. Examples include botulin, curare, and hemlock. Alzheimers disease is associated with a significant drop in acetylcholine levels.Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) increases heart rate and blood pressure. It is part of the bodys fight or flight syst em. Norepinephrine is also needed to form memories. Stress depletes stores of this neurotransmitter. Dopamine is an inhibitory transmitter associated with the reward center of the brain. Low dopamine levels are associated with social anxiety and Parkinsons disease, while excess dopamine is related to schizophrenia.Serotonin is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in mood, emotion, and perception. Low serotonin levels can lead to depression, suicidal tendencies, anger management issues, difficulty sleeping, migraines, and an increased craving for carbohydrates. The body can synthesize serotonin from the amino acid tryptophan, which is found in foods such as warm milk and turkey.Endorphins are a class of molecules similar to opioids (e.g., morphine, heroin) in terms of structure and function. The word endorphin is short for endogenous morphine. Endorphins are inhibitory transmitters associated with pleasure and pain relief. In other animals, these chemicals slow metabolism and permit hibernation.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Government role in a market economy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Government role in a market economy - Essay Example The need of the hour is to have a proper system in place which shall form the basis of immense success for the sake of the organization and hence the government of the land needs to play its quintessential role nonetheless. Moving ahead with the debate, how the government comes into the equation is an interesting debate. This is because the government is usually held responsible for all the actions and undertakings that are being taken on the national level, and thus the brunt is dropped on its head whenever there are serious issues that come to the surface (Rao, 1998). How the government copes with the pressure that is exerted upon it is something that must be understood within the related settings. Proper arrangements should be made to guarantee that these are followed by the organizations within the country, and that success comes about in full circle within the related aegis. The government must give subsidies, lower the taxes and provide relief in different forms – all of which should embody the basis of attaining harmony within a free market economy. ... hat the negativities with regards to the free market structures are taken care of, and if there still exist any further problems, the same are handled in an amicable way. This will resolve the ambiguities that exist within the related fore as well as take care of the free market economic realms in the long run. The government makes sure that the ant-trust laws are reinforced and thus the promulgation of the same would mean success for the sake of the organization in the long run. It would also mean that the government plays its significant part within the protecting of property rights for the free market economic domains and realizes its due role within making the market a freely accessible one. This highlights the proactive role of the government and how it would delve deep into building trust and credibility within its related regimes. The government provides a stable fiscal and monetary environment which shall bring a lot of respect for the government in the long range but what it will really do is to encourage the stakeholders to give in their best time and time again. The political stability is preserved if the government realizes its role towards building the free market scenarios which are indeed something that can go down well within the organizational and indeed the industrial concerns. The role of the free market economic stakeholders is directly dependent on how the government shapes up its own self. If the government realizes its responsibility towards building the economic undertakings, then this would that it is playing its part in a very proactive fashion. However, when this does not happen, there are bound to be serious irregularities. What is most important is to know that such measures would mean failure of the economic undertakings that exist within